The full meaning of SCADA is Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. SCADA is a form of process control system architecture that uses computers, network data, data communications, and a graphical human-machine interface (HMI) to enable high-level process monitoring management and control.
AD interacts with other devices such as programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and PID controllers for SCADA systems to interact with industrial process plants and devices.
Supervisory control and data acquisition systems are important for large industries and are widely used for process control and monitoring. SCADA systems are used primarily because they can control, monitor, and transmit data smartly and seamlessly. Today’s data-driven world is always looking for ways to enhance automation and make smart decisions through the proper use of data – and SCADA systems are one of the best ways to achieve this.
SCADA systems can be run virtually, allowing the operator to keep track of the entire process from its location or control room. Time can be saved effectively by using SCADA. An excellent example of this is SCADA systems used extensively in the oil and gas sector. Large pipelines will be used to transport oil and chemicals inside the manufacturing unit.
Therefore, safety plays a crucial role, as there should be no leakage in the pipeline. If some leakage occurs, the SCADA system is used to identify the leakage. It guesses the information, transmits it to the system, displays the information on the computer screen, and warns the operator.
Normal SCADA systems have both hardware and software components. The computer used for the analysis should be loaded with SCADA software. The hardware component receives input data and feeds it into the system for further analysis.
The SCADA system consists of a hard disk, which records and stores the data in a file, printed as required by the human operator. SCADA systems are used in many industries and manufacturing units such as food, beverage, oil and gas, power, water, and waste. Management units and many more
Objectives of SCADA
- Monitor: SCADA systems constantly monitor physical parameters
- Measurement: It measures the dimension for the process
- Data Acquisition: It retrieves data from RTUs (remote terminal units), data loggers, etc.
- Data Communication: It helps communicate and transmit a large amount of data between MTU and RTU units.
- Control: real-time monitoring and control of the process
- Automation: It helps for automatic transmission and efficiency
The SCADA system consists of hardware units and software units. SCADA requests are executed using the server. Desktop computers and screens act as HMIs connected to a server. Key components of the SCADA system include:
- Master Terminal Unit (MTU)
- Remote Terminal Unit (RTU)
The communication network (defined by its network topology)
Master Terminal Unit (MTU)
MTU is a key part of the SCADA system. It has a computer, PLC, and a network server that helps MTU communicate with RTU. MTU initiates communications, collects and stores data, interferes with tors parameters, and helps the data interact with other systems.
Remote Terminal Unit (RTU)
Since operating in field sites, each remote terminal unit (RTU) is connected to sensors and actuators. RTU is used to collect data from these sensors and forward the data to MTU. RTU has a storage capacity facility. Therefore, it stores the data and transmits the data when the MTU sends the relevant command. Recently developed units operate with sophisticated systems, using PLC as RTU. This helps in the direct transfer and control of data without any signal from MTU.
In general, network means connection. When you refer to a communication network, it is defined as the link with the MTU in the central position between the RTUs in the field. Bilateral wired or wireless communication channels are used for networking purposes. Many other means of communication, like fiber optic cables, twisted pair cables, etc., are also used.
Operation of SCADA systems
In short, we can say that the SCADA system is a collection of hardware and software components that allow manufacturing units to perform specific tasks. Involved in some important functions;
- Monitor To monitor and collect data in real-time.
- To communicate with field devices and control stations through the Human Machine Interface (HMI).
- To record systems events in a systems file.
- Manufacturing To control the production process virtually.
- Storage data collection and reports